Employment Law Advice

Welcome to our frequently asked questions (FAQs) page on Employment Law. Here you will find the latest advice and guidelines for healthcare professionals working during the current COVID-19 pandemic

This is an exceptionally difficult and rapidly evolving situation and we wish to reassure members that the MDDUS stands ready to assist, advise and support our members. Members should ensure they remain aware of the latest guidance from the relevant government and health departments and follow those guidelines.

  • 1. As practices are reopening and staff are returning to work, can we ask them to work while they remain on furlough leave?

    New rules allowing staff to carry out some work while on the furlough leave scheme are due to come into effect on 1st July.

    From this date, employers will be able to bring staff back on a part-time basis, allowing them to work some days of the week while being furloughed for the others. Practices will be able to claim for the hours not worked under the Government scheme.

    This will only apply to employees who have already been furloughed, with the exception of those returning from statutory parental leave, including maternity, paternity, shared parental, adoption or parental bereavement leave.

    Also from 1st July, the three-week minimum furlough period will cease, although the minimum a practice will be able to claim for will be one week. Practices must also claim for work carried out within a single calendar month and cannot submit a claim across two months. The reason for this is that, from 1st August, practices will be required to pay the employer’s National Insurance and pension contributions. From 1st September, the Government’s contribution rate reduces to 70 per cent and then to 60 per cent from 1st October, making the practice liable to pay the difference of 10 per cent and 20 per cent respectively.

    Practices should discuss any new working arrangements with staff and seek detailed written agreement, which should be retained for five years. 

  • 2. What is the current situation regarding the furlough scheme?

    The furlough scheme commenced in March and is due to close on 31st October.

    No new employees can be added to the scheme from 30th June but as there is a requirement for staff to be on furlough leave for three weeks, the last date to furlough any employee (who had not previously been furloughed) was 10th June.

    However, those returning from statutory leave such as maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, shared parental leave and parental bereavement leave can be placed on furlough leave provided the employer has previously furloughed employees.

    Those currently on furlough leave can be brought back into the work place for a period of time and then be placed back on furlough leave.

    From 1st July, practices will be able to bring back furloughed employees back to work on a part time basis, and receive furlough pay for the hours not worked. Practices must agree any new flexible arrangements with the employee and confirm that agreement in writing.

    Template letters can be found on ACAS website: https://www.acas.org.uk/furlough-letter-templates

    From 1st August, employers will need to pay NI and pension contributions to those on furlough leave.

    From 1st September, the Government contribution will lower to 70% of wages up to a cap of £2,187.50 for the hours the employee is not working. Employers will continue to pay employer NICs and pension contributions, and, additionally, must pay 10% of wages to make up to 80% of the total wages, up to the cap of £2,500.

    From 1st October, the Government contribution will lower again to 60% of wages up to a cap of £1,875 for the hours the employee does not work. Employers will continue to pay employer NICs and pension contributions, and will have to pay 20% of wages to make up to 80% of the total wages, up to the £2,500 cap. Close
  • 3. What about employees taking annual leave at this time?

    The rules relating to carry forward of annual leave have been extended in response to the coronavirus outbreak. The statutory four weeks provided for under the EU Working Time Directive can be carried forward and taken in the two leave years immediately following the year in respect of which it was due where it was "not reasonably practicable" to have taken it as a result of the effects of coronavirus.

    The guidance now confirms that employees are able to take annual leave during a period of furlough. If an employee is on a period of annual leave, they should be paid their normal full time pay for this time, with the practice able to claim back 80%.

    You may wish employees to take any pre-booked annual leave to prevent large amounts of annual leave being taken in the latter part for the holiday’s year.

    Employers are also able to require employees to take a period of holiday by giving them double the difference in notice, so 10 days’ notice is required for a five day holiday period.

    ACAS has issued some helpful guidance around annual leave here: https://www.acas.org. Close
  • 4. What do I pay an employee if they are off work with the coronavirus or if they are self-isolating due to a household member having symptoms?

    The practice’s usual sick leave and pay entitlements apply if an employee is off sick with a diagnosis or symptoms of coronavirus.

    If someone in the household has symptoms, everyone in that household must self-isolate for 14 days. Employers might offer more than statutory sick pay (SSP) and provide contractual sick pay, but this is a decision for them to make. 

    Staff should be reminded to alert the manager as soon as possible if they’re not able to come to work under the practice’s normal absence reporting policy. 

    Note that the government has announced SSP is to be paid from day one for those who are absent due to COVID-19, rather than day four and practices can claim back two weeks SSP.

    Be aware these employees may be unable to promptly provide a sick note/fit note if required to self-isolate for 14 days (employees are not required to self-certify for the first seven days).

    Those self-isolating due to coronavirus for more than seven days can get an online self-isolation note from the NHS website and NHS mobile phone app (see link below).

    NHS website
    NHS mobile phone app

    Further guidance can be found here: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/self-isolation-advice/

  • 5. What if an employee refuses to come to work due to the coronavirus or I have an employee who is in a vulnerable category?

    Some employees may not be ill, but may not wish to come to work through fear of contracting coronavirus. If an employee refuses to come to work then the employer needs to speak with the person to see if there is a genuine concern.

    Discuss any concerns with the employee and try to reach a mutually acceptable arrangement. Although not always practicable in clinical practice, one option could be to offer flexible working or working from home. The employee could be allowed to take a period of holiday or unpaid leave but the practice does not have to agree to this. Be clear that if an employee refuses to attend work without good reason, this could result in disciplinary action.

    Employees in the vulnerable category (including individuals aged over 70, women who are pregnant and individuals with an underlying health condition) are recognised as being at increased risk of severe illness from coronavirus.

    There is an additional sub-category of “extremely vulnerable” people (including those who have had organ transplants / are having certain types of cancer treatment / have blood or bone marrow cancer / have a severe lung condition / have a condition or are taking medicine that makes them much more likely to get infections / are pregnant and have a serious heart condition) who are advised to take extra steps to avoid contracting coronavirus by “shielding”. Employees in the “extremely vulnerable” category are likely to have been issued with an “at risk” letter to their home address by the NHS.

    Please click here for further information: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/advice-for-people-at-high-risk/

    While there is no blanket ban on such individuals attending work (should they choose to do so), the Government has issued guidance about stringent social distancing and shielding for these clinically extremely vulnerable groups and both guidance from the BMA and the BDA advise that these people should not see patients face to face.

    It should be considered if these employees could be permitted to work from home where possible and the employer should take all reasonable steps to facilitate that, which could include incurring cost (for example for remote working equipment or licences). Where they are working from home, pay will continue as normal. If the employer fails to take reasonable steps to allow home working, arguably normal pay should be paid until such steps are taken.

    Where an employee could work from home but refuses to do so without good reason that may justify withholding pay entirely.

    Of course there are some jobs that simply cannot be done remotely, and the question arises as to whether vulnerable staff staying at home per government advice should receive full pay, sick pay, or no pay.

    For staff that are shielding, SSP is paid as a minimum and the practice can choose to enhance this to contractual sick pay at their discretion as long as it is consistently applied across all employees. Employees who are shielding can also be placed on furlough leave.

    Recent notification from medical health boards have advised that staff should be paid their normal pay during 12 weeks shielding period.

    Further advice can be ascertained from your own local health board if this change may affect your practice. Close
  • 6. What should I do to minimise the risk to employees?

    Send information and guidance to staff informing them of any actions being taken to reduce risks of exposure in the workplace. This should highlight relevant guidance from Government/the NHS on appropriate use of Personal Protective Equipment (where necessary), as well as the importance of hand-washing and of disposing of used tissues etc.

    The BDA have issued guidance regarding how to help staff return to work and what the practice should consider.
  • 7. How do I know if my employees are classed as key workers for childcare purposes?

    The guidance below sets out what childcare and learning provision we expect to be made available to key workers during closures of school and day care of children, including early learning and childcare (ELC), services to deal with the coronavirus outbreak. 

    It is clear that healthcare workers in a medical or dental setting will be considered to be key workers under the following guidance. 

    UK Government:  “Health and social care

    This includes but is not limited to doctors, nurses, midwives, paramedics, social workers, care workers, and other frontline health and social care staff including volunteers; the support and specialist staff required to maintain the UK’s health and social care sector; those working as part of the health and social care supply chain, including producers and distributers of medicines and medical and personal protective equipment.”

    Scottish Government:  

    Category 1Health and Care workers directly supporting COVID response, and associated staff; Health and Care workers supporting life threatening emergency work, as well as critical primary and community care provision; Energy suppliers (small numbers identified as top priority already); staff providing childcare/learning for other category 1 staff.

    Category 2 All other Health and Care workers, and wider public sector workers providing emergency/critical welfare services (e.g Fire, Police, Prisons, Social Workers, etc), as well as those supporting our Critical National Infrastructure, without whom serious damage to the welfare of the people of Scotland could be caused.”

    Further guidance can be accessed here:

  • 8. What happens if an employee tells me that their child’s school has closed and they need to look after them?

    Employees are entitled to unpaid time off work to help someone who depends on them in an unexpected event or emergency (Emergency Time off For Dependants Leave). This would apply to situations relating to coronavirus, such as if they have children they need to look after or arrange childcare for because their school has closed. Having said that, the government has asked schools and other childcare providers to continue to provide spaces for the children of key workers.  Now schools are closed, local authorities will seek to make a place available to the children of key workers at “hub” school identified for this purpose.  Employees should therefore be asked to speak to their child’s own school or to the local authority before a decision is taken on allowing unpaid leave for childcare purposes.  

    If an employee still requests time off for childcare despite these provisions, there's no statutory right to pay for this time off, but some employers might offer pay depending on the contract or practice policy or a period of annual leave.

    The amount of time off an employee takes to look after someone must be reasonable for the situation. 

    In a dental setting, employees may be able to be furloughed due to childcare issues but we suggest you take case-specific advice on this from an MDDUS employment law adviser.

  • 9. What is emergency statutory volunteer leave?

    The Coronavirus Act 2020 introduces a new statutory right for workers to take emergency volunteering leave to help support essential health and social care services.

    Employees and workers who have been certified by an appropriate authority to act as an emergency volunteer will be able to take unpaid leave in blocks of two, three or four weeks. 

    To take the leave workers must:-

    • Give three working days' notice
    • Produce a certificate from the appropriate authority confirming they have been approved and will be acting as an emergency volunteer for the period specified in the certificate.


    A UK wide compensation scheme is to be set up to compensate volunteers for loss of earnings, travel and subsistence. Workers will remain bound by terms and conditions of employment (except those relating to pay) and there will be a statutory right to return to their job. Employers are not able to refuse unpaid leave to an employee who wishes to carry out volunteer work unless they have less than 10 staff. There is, however, nothing to prevent an employer with a headcount of less than 10 staff agreeing to such a request and it is worth bearing in mind that furloughed employees can take part in volunteer work.

  • 10. What advice can you give me if I have to make my staff redundant?

    The Job Retention scheme is in place to try and avoid this situation and redundancies should only be considered as a last resort where the employer is not eligible for the scheme or if redundancies are an unavoidable outcome.

    Employees who have less than two years’ service are not entitled to redundancy pay and if you have to reduce staff then potentially looking at employees who have less than two years’ service may be a sensible starting point. Any decision to terminate must not take into account any protected categories as part of the Equality Act 2010, regardless of time served.

    If you have employees who have two years’ service or more then there is a legal process of consultation and selection that requires to be followed.

    Employees with two or more years’ service are entitled to statutory redundancy payments. It is important to check your contracts with regards to any entitlement to additional redundancy pay.

    Statutory redundancy pay depends on the employee’s age and length of service as follows:

    • Half a week’s pay for each complete year of employment below the age of 22
    •  A full week’s pay for each complete year of employment between the ages of 22 and 40
    • A week and a half’s pay for each complete year of employment above the age of 41


    Statutory redundancy pay can be given for a maximum of 20 years' employment with only full years of service taken into account.

    If you require further assistance on redundancy please contact an employment law adviser at MDDUS on 0333 043 4444 or email advice@mddus.com.


  • 11. What obligations are in place for the employer and employee in terms of self isolation?

    It is an offence for an employer to knowingly permit an employee to attend any place other than where the individual is self-isolating. This law applies to England only however the Scottish Government is promoting the same advice. This includes individuals who are required to self-isolate because they live with someone who has tested positive. So if an employer knows an employee has tested positive (or lives with someone who has tested positive), it is now responsible for stopping the employee from working (unless they can work from home). Any employer who fails to do so will face a fine, starting at £1,000.

    There is also an obligation on the employee to tell their employer that they are self-isolating. 

  • 12. What is the new Job Support Scheme?

    The new Job Support Scheme (JSS) aims to subsidise the cost of paying employees who are working but are not fully occupied and doing less than their normal hours because of the impact of Covid. This is in place of the previous Furlough scheme. 

    JSS will start on 1 November 2020 immediately after furlough scheme ends and will run for six months until 30 April 2021.

    The main terms provide :-

    • Any employee must do at least 1/3rd of their normal hours to qualify. If they can’t do that, JSS will not apply.

    • Like flexi-furlough, employers will pay those employees in full for those hours that they actually work.

    • For the balance of normal hours which are not worked, the burden is shared equally by the Government (they pay 1/3rd of the cost of non-working hours), the employer (they pay 1/3rd) and the employee (who does not get paid for 1/3rd of those hours but does at least have a job rather than being made redundant).

    • A cap of £697.92 per month applies to the grant and that is as much as can be claimed for each employee. JSS means the Government pays a maximum of 22% of an employee’s salary (when furlough started it was 80%).

    • Following the arrangements which have applied recently under furlough, grants will not cover Class 1 employer NIC or pension contributions and they remain payable by the employer.

    • Similar to furlough, working arrangements need to be in blocks which last for a minimum of seven days (provides flexibility but avoids an administrative burden from frequent changes).

    • JSS can be used by employers even if they did not use furlough.

    • Employers with up to 250 employees can use JSS; above that level evidence of reduced turnover due to COVID is required.

    • Employees must not already be on a redundancy notice. Employers who have already gone through a redundancy exercise and declared redundancies are not able to claim.

    Full details of the scheme will be available shortly to allow employers to plan for the November launch. 

  • 13. If an employee needs to quarantine after a foreign holiday, do I have to pay them?

    If they are able to work from home for the isolation period (which is usually 14 days) then this may not have an impact on their employment and this is the ideal option for the least impact. However this is not always possible for all roles within a medical or dental practice and homeworking lends itself to some roles better than others. We have also had feedback that IT equipment is in short supply so this is an added hurdle. 

    You are able to ask your employees to use annual leave to cover the isolation period but if they don’t have sufficient leave then you may have to come to an agreement with the employee using unpaid leave. 

    Unless the employee is exhibiting coronavirus symptoms then we suggest that the use of statutory or contractual sick pay does not apply in this case. 

    Those employees who wish to travel to a country where there are quarantine laws to be followed on their return must get this period approved by the practice. As stated earlier, working from home is the best option here but if not possible then additional annual leave or unpaid leave must be applied for. It may not be practical to have an employee out the practice for an additional two weeks so you are in a position to decline an extended period of leave. You should ensure that your annual leave policy is updated and shared around staff so that they know to apply for the leave (including the isolation period) and ensure it is approved before booking any foreign trips. 

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